Shafae Law

Shafae Law

Shafae Law is a boutique law firm providing comprehensive estate planning, trust, estate, probate, and trust administration services located in the San Francisco Bay Area.

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What is... a Power of Attorney?

This is part of an on-going series of blog posts titled the "What Is..." series, where we attempt to explain, in simple terms, common estate planning terms and concepts. To read other posts in this series, click here.

At its core, a power of attorney is the legal authority to act for another person. It allows someone to “step into the shoes” of another person.

There are generally two types of powers of attorney relevant to estate planning: medical and financial. A financial power of attorney is sometimes called “durable power of attorney for financial management,” or just “durable power of attorney.” The medical power of attorney is sometimes called the “advance healthcare directive”, “healthcare directive”, or “living will”.

A power of attorney gives someone the power to make decisions on your behalf when you either can’t do so yourself or don’t want to do so. This may arise when you are incapacitated or elderly; it may also arise if you are out of the country and need someone to call your bank for you, or sign a check for a contractor, or something similar.

The key is to ensure that you have given someone the power of attorney in advance of when you need them to act. Once you are deemed incapacitated, it’s too late to sign a power of attorney. Without the necessary powers of attorney in place, someone will need to go to court to obtain the legal authority to act on your behalf in a time of crisis. Going to court always involves time, expense, and the public nature of court can sometimes be humiliating for the person incapacitated.

So when should you have a power of attorney? Now.

Contact us for a free consultation.

Why Hire an Attorney Instead of an Online Provider?

Most estate planning attorneys frequently hear some form of this question: can’t I just do this myself online?

You certainly can create your estate plan yourself. And it’s pretty simple and affordable online.

In our experience, though, the most frequent response we get during a consultation is “I hadn’t thought of that!” To us, that’s what an attorney brings to the proverbial table. Attorneys ask questions to learn the nuances of your particular family dynamics, your goals, and any situations that you may not have thought about. Also, attorneys have the benefit of experience dealing with many other estates, and bringing that experience into planning your estate. This is not about the value of your assets, it’s about understanding goals, making sure you have documents in place that reflect what you want, applying current law, and avoiding potential pitfalls.

Some clients ask us to do a “trust review,” which means looking at the will or trust they already created because they want to modify some aspect of it. Clients are often surprised to see that the will or trust they created online isn’t going to do what they intended it would do. With estate planning documents, wording is the key to everything. With computer generated trusts and estate planning documents, a word or phrase in the wrong place can make the difference between your child being able to use her inheritance toward college education and having to go to court to “unlock” her inheritance because there was a badly worded restriction placed on it. There’s no such thing as a cut and paste estate plan; your life and your family are unique and your estate plan should reflect that.

We’ve also been on the other side of estate planning—the trust administration and probate side that takes place after someone has passed away. We know that you and your loved ones should have the space to grieve instead of trying to interpret the terms of a trust or navigating the probate process. We are here to ensure that you have the peace of mind that an expert is here to assist you through this tough time.

And we’ve been in the in-between—incapacity. We know what it’s like to walk into a bank or call the insurance company with your loved one’s estate planning documents to try to assist your loved one. We know the reality of what the bank or insurance company is going to say to let you get that done. An attorney ensures you have what you need so you can avoid frustration and don’t need to go to court.

Which gets us to one of the main components of hiring an attorney—the attorney-client relationship. When you retain an attorney, that attorney owes you certain duties. Some are the duty of confidentiality, the duty of loyalty, the duty of competent representation, and the duty of zealous advocacy. If a lawyer breaches any of its duties to a client, the lawyer can be held accountable. Lawyers are required to uphold very high standards when it comes to representing clients and their interests. When you use an online service, no attorney-client relationship is formed. No duties are owed to you. You (or your loved ones) cannot hold anyone accountable if things do not turn out how you wanted them to. All you have is a document that you drafted.

That’s the key: hiring an attorney gives you peace of mind through expertise and experience. An attorney will be there in times of crises, when an online provider will not.

We think that we would be those attorneys to give you peace of mind in your estate planning; and if you’d like to find out more, contact us for a free consultation.

Are Holiday Gifts Subject to the Gift Tax?

The short answer: yup! But the more nuanced answer is that if you are giving a gift or receiving a gift in California, you probably won’t end up paying any gift taxes on holiday gifts.

Let’s take a look at the mechanics of a holiday gift. Without getting overly complicated, a holiday gift is a donative transfer of an asset from one person (donor) to another (donee). A “donative transfer” simply means that no one traded you or paid you anything for it (as in, it’s a true gift). Just like the government taxes your income (income taxes), certain goods sold (sales tax), and also real estate that you own (property taxes), it also taxes the donative transfer of assets. So the gift tax is a transfer tax.

A couple of details: the gift tax is only imposed by the federal government--so only the IRS will tax you, not the state of California--and it’s only imposed on the donor (the person giving the gift). If you receive a gift, and you live in California, you’re not on the hook for transfer taxes.

There are two types of gifts: those you give during life (intervivos) and those you make after you die (like through a will or trust). We’re going to focus on intervivos gifts since most holiday gifts are given during life.

Here’s why most of you will not owe any gift taxes on your holiday gifts. The federal government has this nifty rule called the “annual exclusion”. What that means is that each of you can make a gift up to $15,000, per year, per recipient, and not owe any taxes on that gift. In fact, the IRS doesn’t even want to know about it! You don’t have to report it. Married couples can combine that exclusion amount to $30,000 to one recipient, per year, and still fall within the same rule. So put another way, you’d have to be awfully generous this holiday season to have to deal with gift taxes.

Well, what if you are that generous? What happens if you make a gift that exceeds the annual exclusion?

Now we get to the “unified credit” or estate tax exemption amount. The unified credit is an amount the federal government allows you to gift during your entire lifetime, and combine that amount with whatever you own when you die, and not pay any transfer taxes if you are below the unified credit amount. It’s an amount set by law, and it increases every year based on inflation. The credit amount in the year that you die is what is applied. The exemption level for 2018 is $11.18 million. For example, let’s say you die in 2018 (sorry to bum you out!)--if the total of what you gifted during your life, and what you owned at death is less than $11.18 million then you would pay ZERO transfer taxes. For 2019, that number increases to $11.4 million.

Let’s recap: if you make a gift to someone that’s valued at $15,000 or less, per person, you don’t have to report it, and no transfer taxes are owed, and there’s no reduction in your unified credit amount. If you make a gift in excess of $15,000 but less than the unified credit (currently $11.18 million), you won’t owe any transfer taxes, but you’ll need to report it to the IRS. They’ll walk over to your file, and deduct the amount of the gift from your unified credit amount. For example, if you gift $20,000 to your favorite niece this year, you would report a $5,000 gift ($20,000 - $15,000 exclusion amount) and the IRS would walk over to your file and deduct $5,000 from your $11.18 million unified credit. Only $11.175 million left to give before you pay transfer taxes!

Happy Holidays! And don’t forget to send those ‘thank you’ cards!


303 Twin Dolphin Drive
Suite 600
Redwood City, California 94065

12100 Wilshire Boulevard
Suite 800
Los Angeles, California 90025


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